Lithuanian version
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War Chronicle of the Partisans


For the first time in Lithuanian history, we present the War Chronicle of the Partisans in English and Lithuanian. Prepared by Algis Rupainis, this Chronicle is a day-by-day account of Lithuanian's resistance against occupying forces. The Chronicle reflects all partisan warfare throughout Lithuania. A few less meaningful events have been included because the volume of information available from various parts of Lithuania is uneven. If any disparity exists between sources, alternative accounts are shown in brackets [ ]. Abridged versions are also noted in brackets. Names have been revised according to official sources.

Administrative denomination of regions is shown as it appears in contemporary official sources. After each event, abbreviations are provided in full text.

Currently in English are published these parts (of IX) of Chronicle:
Part I (June of 1944 - End of 1944)
Part II (January of 1945 - June of 1945)
Part III (July of 1945 - End of 1945)
Part IV (January of 1946 - August of 1946)
Part V (September of 1946 - March of 1947)
Part VI (April of 1947 - March of 1948)
Part VII (April of 1948 - April of 1949)


Prepared: Algis Rupainis
A Special Thanks To: Voruta - Lithuanian Historical Weekly and Vartiklis. for permission to re-publish.
Lithuanian Website Design and Editing: Jonas Skendelis, [Lithuania], Volunteer, Lithuanian Global Resources
English Translation: Gintautas Kaminskas, [Australia] Volunteer, Lithuanian Global Resources
English Website Design and Editing: Sandra Souveskas [USA], Webmaster, Lithuanian Global Resources


Meaning in Lithuanian Meaning in English
ALA Algimanto apygarda Algimantas Command
BDLS Bendrasis demokratinis Lietuvos sąjūdis General Democratic Union of Lithuania
BDPS Bendrasis demokratinio pasipriešinimo sąjūdis General Democratic Resistance Movement
DA Dainavos apygarda Dainava Command
DKA Didžiosios Kovos apygarda Great Battle Command
DKR Didžiosios Kovos rinktinė Great Battle Special Team
GP Gynybos pajėgos Defence Forces
JKA Jungtinė Kęstučio apygarda Joint Command of Kestutis
KA Kęstučio apygarda Kestutis Command
KLT Karo Lauko teismas Court Martial
LF Lietuvių frontas Lithuanian Front
LGK Lietuvos gynimo komitetas Lithuanian Defence Committee
LIK Lietuvos išlaisvinimo komitetas Lithuanian Liberation Committee
LIT Lietuvos išlaisvinimo taryba Lithuanian Liberation Council
Lietuvos laisvės armija
OS - LLA Organizacinis sektorius (vėliau - organizacinis skyrius)
ŠA - 3-oji LLA Šiaurės apygarda
VS - LLA Veikiantysis sektorius (Vanagai)
Lithuanian Freedom Army
OS -LLA Organisational Sector (later - Organisational Section)
SA - 3rd LLA Northern Command
VS -LLA Active Sector (Vanagai - "Hawks")
LLKS Lietuvos laisvės kovotojų sąjūdis Lithuanian Freedom Fighters' Union
LPS Lietuvos partizanų sąjunga Lithuanian Partisans' Union
LTT Lietuvių tautinė taryba Lithuanian National Council
PA Prisikėlimo apygarda Revival Command
PL Pietų Lietuva South Lithuania
PLP Pietų Lietuvos partizanai South Lithuanian Partisans
RA Raudonoji armija Red Army
RL Rytų Lietuva East Lithuanian
SRL Šiaurės Rytų Lietuva Northwest Lithuania
TA Tauro apygarda Tauras Command
TAR Tėvynės apsaugos rinktinė Homeland Defence Special Team
TGS Tautos gelbėjimo sąjunga National Assistance Union
VA Vytauto apygarda Vytautas Command
VEA VČA - Vyčio apygarda Vytis Command
VGPS VGPŠ - Vyriausiasis ginkluotųjų pajėgų štabas Supreme Armed Forces Command
PGPV Vyriausioji ginkluotųjų pajėgų vadovybė Supreme Armed Forces Leadership
VL Vakarų Lietuva West Lithuania
VLIK Vyriausiasis Lietuvos išlaisvinimo komitetas Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania
VLKSO Vieningos laisvės kovos sąjūdžio organizacija United Freedom Fight Movement Organisation
ZA ŽA - Žemaičių apygarda Samogitian Command
ZL ŽA - Žemaičių legionas Samogitian Legion


"We were forced to go out and defend our country, our farms, the very land splashed with the blood of our forefathers. Human dignity obligated us to resist the trampling of our human rights, to resist servitude. We cannot accept the lies, the deceit, the perversion of truth and other evils harmful to our nation. Our efforts are praiseworthy. We have truth on our side and are justified in the eyes of the civilized world. The Almighty will bless and support our struggle."

J. Kasperavicius

War Chronicle of the Partisans

June 24, 1944
General M. Peciulionis publishes a proclamation to establish a Defence Command or "Special Defence Teams" consisting of approximately 35 men to be attached to local headquarters of each region.
LKA 11-49. VV

July 9 1944
General M. Peciulionis, the only remaining member of the VLIK War Council, begins to organise resistance to the occupation of Lithuania.
L-124. VV

July 13, 1944
The Red Army [RA] occupies Vilnius.
LPK-13. OK

July 15 1944
KGB [State Security Committee] operatives in the Lithuanian SSR arrive in Vilnius.
LPK-38. OK

July 17, 1944: Siauliai
General M. Peciulionis ("Bushman") [Miskinis] signs Military Order #1: If it is impossible to stop the Red Army, LLA forces are to conceal their weapons and join the underground resistance.
L-124.260.LK-57. VV

July 20, 1944
Military Order #21: The LLA is to be divided into two sectors:
     The Operational Sector [VS] and
     The Organisational Sector [OS - or the Reserve].
Captain A. Karalius is appointed head of the OS and A. Eidimtas the deputy leader of LLA.
L-124.260.LK-57. VV

July 24, 1944
The Central Committee of the LKP [Lithuanian Communist Party], without withdrawing personnel from normal duties, creates regional "destroyer battalions" by activating party-soviet cadres, Communist Youth members, NKVD [milicy], and Red Army personnel.
[LKA 17-94, LPK-329].

Summer, 1944: Town of Batakiai, District of Taurage
Led by Germans, LLL Intelligence Training Camps begin operations. The leader of the Lithuanian group is P. Ceponis [Leonas]. As the Russian-German front approaches, armed Lithuanians begin to wage partisan warfare.
RZ-50. KA

Summer of 1944
The first partisan units from Suvalkija are formed and leaders are selected as follow:
     Captain S. Staniskis-Antanaitis: Paliu forest of Marijampole
     Lieutenant M. Kuzmickis-Briedis: Prienu district
     A. Abromaitis-Spyglis: Forests of Kazlu Ruda
     V. Gavenas-Vampyras: District of Marijampole-Kija
LKA 1-3. TA

August 1, 1944
The 4th Riflemen's Division of the USSR's NKVD Army, under the command of Major-General P. Vetrov, commence military operations in Lithuania.
AL-160. OK

August 1, 1944
Occupying forces begin to mobilize military units; Lithuanian men born between 1908-1926 are subject to conscription.
AL-160, LKA 17-5. OK

August 3, 1944: Siesikai in the District of Ukmerge
Opening fire on occupied regional administration buildings, the combined partisan units of J. Dovydenas and
H. Sembergas attack Siesikai.
LKA 10-6. VEA

August, 1944: Atkociunai village in the Ukmerge district [Deltuva County].
Leaders of the LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army] gather. The Ukmerge district is divided into 6 LLA regions.

The 1st LLA Region [Counties of Pagiriai, Siesikai, and part of Deltuva county] falls under the command of Lieutenant D. Vaitelis. The 2nd LLA Region [Taujenai county and part of Deltuva county] is commanded by Captain J. Taponis. The Vytis Command is formed from these regions.
L-315, LKA 10-5. VEA

August, 1944
General M. Peciulionis, LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army], Lieutenant K. Veverskis, and engineer Snarskis establish the LGK [Lithuanian Defence Committee] to provide leadership to all partisan units actively involved in Lithuanian resistance.
L-125. LKA 14-10. VV

August, 1944: District of Telsiai, near Plateliai
The Hawks [Vanagai] begins active resistance from command posts in the village of Skirpsiai, the county of Alsedziai, and the farmstead of A. Pocius.
LKA 7-46. ZA

August 15-17, 1944: District of Zarasai
The Hawk's [Vanagai's] leader, Captain A. Kazanas, together with A. Streikus and his sons Izidorius and Juozapas, gather 150-350 armed volunteers and attack the Zarasai jail to liberate wrongfully imprisoned Lithuanians.
L-239. (LKA 14-51. LKA 16-68). VA

August 19, 1944: District of Zarasai
The partisan unit of V. Sutas disarms the Soviet militia of Antaliepte, seizing 8 automatic rifles, 10 grenades and a large quantity of ammunition.
LKA 14-58

End of August 1944: Trakai, Ukmerge district, and Musninkai county
The partisan teams of:
      J. Misiunas,
      A. Galinis, The Black Mask Unit [Juodoji Kauke],
      E. Kavaliauskas, The Clown Unit [Klounas], and
      Z. Kacevicius, The Woodpecker Unit [Genys]
are active in the area of Trakai. By September, the squad has a name: The Great Battle Special Team [Didziosios kovos rinktine - DKR]. Their leader, J. Misiunas, is known as The Green Devil [Zalias Velnias].
D. L-325, VDr. DKA

August 31, 1944: Zarasai district of Antazaves county, between the villages of Maniuliskiai and Lygalaukiiai
A group of partisans led by A. Streikus ambush the enemy, seriously injuring P. Timofejev, the Soviet militia chief of Antazaves county, a militia man, and 2 Soviet soldiers.
LKA 14-53. LKA 16-74

September 1-6, 1944: Alytus District
Armed enemy units perform massive searches on farmsteads and in forests, detaining approximately 500 Lithuanian men for conscription.
LKA 17-5. DA

September 4, 1944: Siesikai county in the Ukmerge District
Partisans assume command of the militia headquarters and administrative centre and destroy vital documents.
L-325. 491. VEA

September 9, 1944: On the road between Pagiriai and Ukmerge
Partisans ambush and kill A. Dambrauskas, [Supreme Soviet Deputy of the LSSR and secretary of the Communist party for the county of Pagiriai and Vasiliauskas], the President of the area Communist party, and the district LLKJS [Communist Youth] committee secretary in Ragauskaite.

September 13, 1944: Merkine county of the Alytus district near the village of Bugoniai
Approximately 100 men gather to form two armed resistance units. Partisans select Julius Mikalonis and
Jonas Kudarauskas, both from the village of Klepociai, as their leaders.
L-188. DA

September 15, 1944: District of Alytus
Partisans, active in the counties of Alove and Merkine, assemble. Led by A. Krajauskas, they form a plan to capture enemy weapons.
B. L-187. LKA 17-5. DA

September 1944
B. Zinkevicius-Skudutis assembles a group of 18 sworn LLA (Lithuanian Freedom Army) partisans from Saldutiskis county in the Svencionys district.
LKA 16-19. VA

Autumn 1944: County of Onuskis, Trakai district
Led by Jonas Matukevicius ("The Wolf") [Vilkas], a group of 40 partisans disrupt enemy activities in the area.
L-188, LKA 17-9. DA

October 1, 1944: Dusetai county of Zarasai district
An 18-man partisan group, under the leadership of J. Savickas, is attacked by NKVD troops. In the fighting, Savickas is killed, his brother and several other partisans captured.
LKA 16-70. VA

October 7, 1944: Mazeikiai district near Seda
Approximately 100 members of the TAR [Homeland Defence Special Team] are killed while engaged in combat with the Red Army on the German-USSR front.

October, 1944: Town of Vadokliai, district of Ukmerge
A partisan unit led by P. Kecorius captures the town and liberates six local residents who had been placed under arrest.
L-321, 491. VEA

October 22, 1944
The Tigers [Tigras] special team of the LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army] is formed. Operating in the districts of Zarasai, Svencionys and Utena, their leader is L. Vilutis [Arunas]. The officer-in-charge at headquarters is J. Bulka ("Diamond") [Deimantas], president of the War Tribunal is Father P. Liutkus ("Black Peter") [Juodasis Petras]. On October 23, a total of 13 squads are formed.
va 4. 489. LKA 16-7. 130. LPK-497. VL-115. VA

October 26, 1944: Birzai district
Partisans liberate 48 wrongfully imprisoned Lithuanians from the guard house.
L-23. 491. VEA

September through December 1944: Zarasai district
20 active partisan units are led by P.Zemaitis, J. Zavackas, V. Sutas, M. Medinis ("The Bear"} ["Lokys"], A. Ivaska, K. Ramanauskas, A. Slapsinskas, J. Savickas, M. Paskonis ("Don Quijote") [Don Kichotas] and others.
LKA 16-68. VA

November 10, 1944: Town of Valkininkai in the district of Trakai
A partisan unit led by S. Aleksa attacks Valkininkai. The president of the local Communist committee is wounded and enemy government buildings set ablaze.
L-23. 481. KDK. LKA 17-14. DA

November 11, 1944: Town of Onuskis in the district of Trakai
A partisan unit led by J. Matukevicius ("The Wolf") [Vilkas] seizes command of Onuskis, destroying the militia building.
KDK. L-23. LKA 17-14. DA

November, 1944
Mykolas Kazanas, on orders from his father, Captain A. Kazanas, journeys to the forests of Antazave to unite the Zarasai district partisans.
LKA 16-72. VA

November, 1944: Near the fortress-hill of Ginuciai, in the county of Ignalina
The first armed encounter between the Tiger Special Team of the LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army] and the occupying forces ensues under the command of Lieutenant J. Gimzauskas ("Birch")[Berzas]. There are no partisans casualties. Encouraged by their success, the partisans, under the command of J. Tumenas, attack Alanta in the district of Utena, setting fire to the communist party building and the KGB garrison. According to eye-witness accounts, 13 soviet activists are killed.
L-295. 489. LKA 16-7. 8. VL-131. VA

November 17, 1944: Alsedziai county in the district of Telsiai
Trained by German military intelligence, A. Kubilius, together with 4 friends, parachute into Alsedziai county. His mission: re-established the organisational structure of the LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army], later known as the Zhemaitijan Legion.
LKA 15-293. LKA 18-17. 57. ZA

November 22, 1944
A direct order is issued to troops of the Hawks' [Vanagai] brigade: provisions will first be requisitioned from state farms then from enemies of the Lithuanian nation. Only as a last resort will provisions be requested from ordinary Lithuanian citizens. Then, only after a receipt is issued.
L-83. VV

End of 1944: Kelme county of Raseiniai district
A special team headquarters for the Vegele group is created in Kelme. Leaders include P. Podolskis and A. Zaskevisius.
L-235. 485. LKA 12-6. KA

End of 1944
P. Paulaitis and V. Gudavisius activate the Echo [Aidas] partisan group comprised of members from the LF [Lithuanian Front] and Union of Defenders of Lithuanian Freedom [Lietuvos laisves gynejo sajungos], who are active in the Jurbarkas area from 1941-1944. This group is to become the nucleus of The Lithuanian Freedom Fighters Special Team [Lietuvos laisves gynejo rinktine].
L-234. RZ-43. 44. KA

End of 1944
Partisan groups active in the Simonys grove and Troskunai forests of Panevezys district, incorporated into larger units. The most active organisers and fighters are the Slucka brothers [Antanas, Bronius and Stasys], the Stanevisius brothers [Jonas, Albertas and Vytautas], A. Pasmokis, P. Tunkevisius, S. Josys, Aviation Lieutenant V. Girdenis, Lieutenant A. Malinauskas ("Dapple") [Margis] and Lieutenant Laplovas ("Oak")[Azuolas].

December, 1944: Ukmerge district
The VEA [Vytis Command] is formed from the 1st and 2nd LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army] brigades. There are four units with about 250 fighters; the leaders are J. Kristaponis, D. Vaitelis, A. Vaiciunas, and J. Pozeceka. The officer-in-command is J. Kristaponis, his adjutant Lieutenant D. Vaitelis ("Moose") [Briedis]. Members of the headquarters staff are Lieutenant A. Danyla [Kernius], B. Eglinskas [Saulius], M. Smetona [Ripka], J. Dambrauskas, J. Survila [Sarunas"], B. Kadzys [Vytautas].
L-315. LKA 10-5. (L-491. G-154). VEA

End of 1944: Raseiniai district
Approximately 19 partisan groups are active in the area, having recruited approximately 2,000 men.
L-235. LKA 12-7. KA

December 1, 1944
Partisans led by A. Eidintas capture Seredzius. Nine county activists are killed, numerous prisoners released. One partisan is killed. On June 7-8, 1945, the partisans once again capture Seredzius.
AKL-21. L-23. 485. RZ-60. KA

December 3, 1944
The Lithuanian Communist Party and the Council of "People's" Commissars of the LSSR order the creation of approximately 30-40 destroyer [stribai] units from Soviet activists in each county of the LSSR.
LKA 17-94. LPK-332. OK

December 4-5, 1944: Town of Girkalnis, district of Raseinia
A partisan group led by A. Stasaitis attacks Girkalnis, disrupting the conscription of men into the Soviet Army and liberating prisoners. A local communist official is killed.
L-235. 486. LKA 12-7. RZ-60. KA

December 7, 1944: Eisiskes
Thirty-one prisoners are liberated
L-23. DA

December 8, 1944: Butrimonys in the district of Alytus
Lead by P. Paulauskas [Sarunas], a group of partisans attack and free 6 imprisoned Lithuanians.
KDK. L-481. LKA 17-15. DA

December 10, 1944
The LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army] issues Battle Tactics Order # 4: Liquidate only the most dangerous Soviet State officials and warn others [Soviets] not to carry out their duties.
L-24. LK-67. VV

December 12, 1944: Panemunis in the district of Rokiskis
Partisans assume command of Panemunis.
L-23. VA

December 15, 1944
The Bear [Lokys] Brigade of the LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army] is formed from partisans who have been active in Dusetai, Kriaunai, and Obeliai counties of Zarasai district as well as parts of the Antazave district. Their leader is Mykolas Kazanas [Mutka or Siaubas], his adjutant B. Galvonas. Headquarters is located in the pine forest of Antazave. The first issue of the newspaper Independence [Nepriklausomybe] is published.
L-293. 489. LKA 16-72. VA

December 15, 1944: Town of Grinkiskis in the district of Kedainiai
Partisans assume control of Grinkiskis.
L-23. 488. KA

December, 1944: The forests of Balbieriskis in the district of Marijampole.
A group of partisans, led by V. Raskauskas, continues paritisan activities.

December, 1944
The special Tigers ["Tigras"] team of The LLA is augmented by a 12-man paratroops team trained by the Germans. Dropped into the forests of the district of Svencionys, their leader is J. Basys [Putinas].
LKA 16-8. 9. LKA 18-41. VA

December, 1944: The forests of Burbiskis in the district of Zarasai
A 24-man partisan unit under the command of Lieutenant A. Slapsinskas, is attacked by Soviet forces and defeated. Slapsinskas and 5 freedom-fighters are killed, numerous partisans are taken prisoner. Some freedom-fighters escape to join other units.
LKA 14-54. VA

December 16, 1944: Cekiske county of Kaunas district
In an 8 hour battle, partisans kill 3 NKVD agents and injure 6. To avenge the loss, from December 17 through December 21, Soviet agents incinerate 29 farmsteads in the villages of Butkiskiai, Vosbutai, Baukiai and Juodaiciaio. 56 people are killed, 68 arrested.
AL-198. KA

December 16, 1944: A pine forest in the county of Krakiai in the Kedainys district
Approximately 300 partisans fight throughout the day under the command of V. Pabarcius. They defend their fortified camp against the Soviet attack. Partisans from the forests of Paliepiai under the command of Captain K. Bendzius and the Linden Hill [Liepkalnis] group, led by A. Sibicius, aid the group. Approximately 80-90 men and officers of the enemy force are killed. V. Pabarcius is forced to withdraw to the forests of Lenciai.
L-18, MK2-88. KA

November 11 to December 22, 1944: Panevezys district
Three groups of German-trained paratroops are dropped into the area. The leaders are Lieutenant A. Silas {"Raven"} [Kovas], Lieutenant V. Jazokas [Petraitis] and Lieutenant S. Girdziunas ("May") [Geguzis]. Later, these groups form the basis for the 3rd command of Siaures LLA [Northern Lithuanian Freedom Army].
LKA 10-10. LKA 18-40. 41. SA

December 25-26, 1944: In the forest of Burbiskis in the county of Anyksciai
Soviet troops attack a combined partisan division composed of men from units in AnyksSiai, Kurkliai, Kavarskas and Skiemonys. The division is led by Lithuanian Army Warrant Officer Kazys Tyla. The partisans flee to the forests of Ramuldava and break-up into small groups. On April 28th, 1945, Kazys Tyla is captured by the enemy, forced to wade into Rubikiai Lake, and gunned down.

December 26-27, 1944: The pine forest of Antazave in Zarasai district
The Soviet's army surrounds the partisans of the Bear's [Lokys] special team. After a day of battle, 85 partisans are able to escape under the cover of darkness. J. Kairys is killed, M. Kazanas injured. There are differing accounts on the number of injuries sustained by the enemy. After the battle, the remaining partisans separate, remaining relatively inactive throughout the winter.
DL-29. L-293. (L-489. LKA 16-73.) VA

December 28, 1944: Kaunas district near Raudondvaris
LLA (Lithuanian Freedom Army) partisan leader K. Veverskis ("Senior") [Senis] is killed in action.
L-126. 261. LK-621. RZ 50. VV

End of 1944; Early 1945: County of Siluva, Raseiniai district
The Zebenkstis special team is formed. Elected leaders are: J. Zemaitis ("Songster"-"Dainius"), J. Ceponis ("Watchful" -"Budrys"), and and P. Bartkus. Sixty armed men are placed under their command.
L-234. LKA 12-6. KA

January 8, 1945: The pine forest of Antazave in the district of Zarasai
As the Bear's special team, under the command of V. Kuzma ("Bewitched") [Uzburtuolis], withdraws from the forest, they encounter enemy troops near the village of Barsenai. In the attempt to flee across frozen Sartai Lake, 9 partisans are lost. V. Kuzma and 3 other partisans manage to escape.
DL-32. LKA 16-73

January 12, 1945: The forest of Uzulenis in the county of Taujenai, the Ukmerge district
In a battle with NKVD troops, the leader of the VEA [Vytis Command], J. Kristaponis, together with 23 partisans, perish at the hands of the Soviet army. 80 Soviet soldiers are killed in battle.
L-491. LKA 10-7. MK2-145. VEA.

January 15, 1945
The DKR [Great Battle Special Team], which previously had about 500 fighters in 7 groups, is restructured into the 5th division of LLA [Lithuanian Freedom Army] and assigned to the Vilnius command of the LLA, now re-established. When the command headquarters in Vilnius is destroyed, regional order-of-command turns into shambles.
L-325. 326. . 74 VDr. DKA.

January, 1945: The village of Troskunai
Partisans from the districts of Troskunai, Viesintai, Simonys, Anyksciai, Kavarskas, Traupys, Taujenai and Raguva gather to form special teams [Sarunas] led by Lieutenant A. Slucka [Sarunas] and assisted by Lieutenant V. Girdenis ("The Pilot") [Lakunas] and Lieutenant A. Laplovas ("The Oak")[Azuolas]. Approximately 22 men are involved. After the meeting, partisans assume control of Troskunai without resistance.

January 1945: The forest of Birbiliskes, Gaure county, Taurage district
Partisans led by A. Jonikas [Rolandas] are attack by Soviet troops. While exact numbers are not know, many partisans are killed in battle. The enemy assumes control of the area.
GM-188. 189. LKA 18-267. KA.

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Read the Lithuanian version of the Chronicle

Chronicle of the Partisan Wars was compiled by Algis Rupainis, born on February 1, 1932 in the village of Lapainia, Kruonys county, Kaisiadorys district. >From 1939 to 1948, Rupainis resided in the village of Stankiskis, Sveksna county and was a student at Sveksna High School. From 1948 to 1958, he was exiled to Krasnojarsk district of Siberia and worked as a forest feller, raftsman, driver, packer. Rupainis attended Bogucani elementary school and the Forestry Technology Institute of Siberia [qualified as mechanical specialist]. >From 1958 to 1995, he worked in Vilnius in the constructor industry, as a teacher's aide and as a guard. Currently a pensioner, he is married and his wife Ona is science worker.

Copyright © October, 1998 by Lithuanian Global Resources for Algis Rupainis.

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